Analysis of Code Switching and Code Mixing in the Novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora
Najmah Soraya Wahdani
The purpose of this study is to find out the use of code switching and code mixing in the novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora. This study investigates the types of code switching and code mixing which occur in the dialogues spoken by the characters, the reasons why the characters switch or mix their dialogues, and the context of code switching and code mixing in the dialogues. The data are collected by writing the dialogues containing code mixing and code switching in a field note and then marking the mixed words or switched phrases or sentences in the dialogues. The data are analyzed using Hoffman’s theory of types and reasons of code switching and code mixing. In addition, Saville-Troike’s theory of reasons of code switching and code mixing is also used in this study. The results show that most characters use Intra-sentential switching in their conversation because there are many of English terms that are familiar to them so that they can use in their sentences easily. The results also show that most characters switch or mix their dialogues because of expressing their group identity.
Key words: Code Switching, Code Mixing, Novel, Macarin AnjingIntroduction
Literary books in Indonesia have been developed since many years ago both in their quantity and their quality. Since the coming of foreigners who use English in their communication, Indonesian people become able to use English and begin to teach/spread it to other Indonesian people. Since then, Indonesian literary books have also been influenced by English that we often see books that contain English.
One kind of Indonesian literary book that is much influenced by English is the novel. A novel is an extended fictional prose narrative focusing on a few primary characters but often involving scores of secondary characters. It involves events, characters, and what the characters say and do (Abrams, 1993). In this case, the novel Macarin Anjing is a novel which includes the dialogues containing English. The characters in this novel often mix their bahasa Indonesia with English or even switch from bahasa Indonesia into English. This kind of situation may be called language mixing and switching.
Language mixing and switching can actually happen only in the language of a bilingual. The definition of bilingual itself is a person who has some functional ability in the second language (Spolsky, 1998: 45). On the other hand, Hamers and Blanc (1987: 265) define bilingual as “an individual who has an access to two or more different codes or languages”. While Macnamara (1967), as quoted by Hamers and Blanc (1987: 6) defines bilingual as “anyone who possesses a minimal competence in one of the four skills, i.e. listening comprehension, speaking, reading and writing in a language other than his mother tongue”.
In line with the explanation above, the characters in the novel can be considered as bilinguals since they have met the requirement of bilinguals stated by Hamers and Blanc. Besides, they have also met the requirements of bilinguals stated by Spolsky and Macnamara.
The characters in the novel is actually one kind of speech community. The members of the same speech community should share linguistic norms, i.e. understanding, values and attitudes about language varieties present in their community. In this case, the characters of the novel communicate with each other using the language that has certain specifications such as the case of language mixing and switching.
In addition, code switching and code mixing are also closely related to the phenomenon of diglossia. According to Ferguson, diglossia exists in a society when it has two distinct codes which show clear functional separation; that is one employed in one set of circumstances ((H), i.e. has high prestige) and the other in an entirely different set ((L), i.e. has low prestige). For instance, Javanese language has the form of diglossia since it has the (H), i.e. Krama Inggil and also the (L), i.e. Ngoko.
On the other hand, Fishman (1972: 136) defines diglossia as “the phenomenon in which one language is considered higher than another”. While according to Syafi’ie (1981: 40), the language situation in Indonesia is considered higher than the local languages and English is considered higher in prestige and social status than bahasa Indonesia. Therefore, the characters in the novel are likely to do code mixing and code switching in their communication with others.
The phenomenon of code mixing and code switching itself has become an interesting topic to be discussed, especially in the novel like Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora. Since this novel contains the reflection of teenagers’ life nowadays, mainly their problems of love, it may lead the readers that are mostly teenagers to begin imitating the way the characters behave or even the way they communicate to each other. So, this research is conducted to observe this phenomenon more deeply.
The Novel Macarin Anjing
The novel Macarin Anjing is one of the novels written by Christian Simamora. In this novel, the characters often use code switching and code mixing in their dialogues. This situation is primarily influenced by the writer himself. The writer once has studied in London School majoring at Journalism and Media Studies. From this school, he might get such a lot of information and knowledge about English so that he applied it when he wrote his novels, especially the novel entitled Macarin Anjing.
The main reason why the writer use code switching and code mixing in the novel is to make it more readable by the readers who are mostly teenagers. Regardless of the willingness to ‘contaminate’ the language, the use of mixed languages is considered common in the circle of teenagers in Jakarta. Besides, he found out that the readers of his previous novels like very much the parts of the novels which contain English. Therefore, looking into those discoveries, he decide to keep maintaining his habit of using code switching and code mixing within his novels as his writing style.
Human beings are social beings who are always committed to a certain group of people called a community. A particular community has its own characteristics, including the way of communication. This community is called speech community. Bloomfield (1933: 42) offers the simple definition of speech community. He says that a speech community is a group of people who interact by means of speech. In addition, Spolsky (1998: 24) also defines speech community as “all the people who speak a single language and so share notions of what is same or different in phonology or grammar”.
The members of the same speech community should share linguistic norms. That is, they share understanding and values of attitudes toward language varieties present in their community. A speech community is no more than some kind of social group whose speech characteristics are of interest and can be described in a coherent manner (Wardhaugh, 1986: 113).
Because of the system, Gumperz (1971: 115) further states that “the language of a speech community can be analyzed both within the context of the language itself and also within the broader context of social behavior”. One example of this is the phenomenon of language switching and mixing.
As has been mentioned previously, Spolsky (1998: 45) defines a bilingual as “a person who has some functional ability in the second language”. This may vary from a limited ability in one or more domains, to very strong command of both languages (sometimes called balanced bilingualism). The definition of bilingualism itself is ‘the native-like’ control of two languages (Bloomfield, 1933: 56). Titone (1972) as quoted by Hamers and Blanc (1987: 7) has also proposed another definition of bilingualism as “the individual’s capacity to speak a second language while following the concepts and structures of that language rather than paraphrasing his or her mother tongue”.
Related to speech community, Hamers and Blanc (1987: 6) define bilingualism as “the state of a linguistic community in which two languages are in contact with the result that two codes can be used in the same interaction and that a number of individuals are bilingual”. Similarly, Fishman (1971), as quoted by Platt (1975: 88), suggests that bilingualism can happen if there is a fairly large and complex speech community, therefore the people in that community become aware of acquiring several languages.
In addition, Gumperz (1971: 222) also mentions that bilingual people usually use their own idioms for in-group communication and the common language for their interaction and communication with outsiders. In this case, the bilinguals have a repertoire of domain-related rules of language choice (Spolsky, 1998: 46), meaning that bilinguals are able to choose which language he is going to use.
In other words, since the members of a bilingual community vary in the capacity of mastering the languages used in the community, they have to be able to set a condition where they can communicate effectively. This condition leads them to do code switching and code mixing.
A diglossic situation exists in a society when it has two distinct codes which show clear functional separation; that is, one is employed in one set of circumstances and the other in an entirely different set. Ferguson (1959: 336) defines diglossia as a language situation in a multilingual community where there is one language considered higher (H) in prestige and social status than the others (L).
Fishman (1967) introduced the notion that diglossia could be extended to situations found in many societies where forms of two genetically unrelated (or at least historically distant ) languages occupy the H and L norms, such that one of the languages (e.g. Latin in medieval Europe) is used for religious, educational, literacy and other such prestigious domains, while another language (in the case of medieval Europe, the vernacular languages of that era) is rarely used for such purposes, being only employed for more informal, primarily spoken domains.
Scotton (1986) proposes the terms `narrow' for Ferguson's 1959 version of diglossia, and `broad' (or `diglossia extended') to refer to Fishman's expansion of the discussion. According to Scotton, few truly diglossic (in the 1959 sense) communities actually exist, because to meet the criteria, two conditions must hold: (1) everyone speaks the Low variety as a mother tongue, and (2) the High variety is never used in informal conversations.
Code Switching and Code Mixing
According to Victoria and Rodman (1998), code switching is a term in linguistics referring to using more than one language or dialect in conversation. Code-switching can be distinguished from other language contact phenomena such as loan translation (calques), borrowing, pidgins and creoles, and transfer or interference.
The other phenomenon closely related to code switching is code mixing. Code mixing occurs when conversants use both languages together to the extent that they change from one language to the other in the course of a single utterance (Wardhaugh, 1986: 103). It means that the conversants just change some of the elements in their utterance. Code mixing takes place without a change of topic and can involve various levels of language, e.g., morphology and lexical items.
Types of Code Switching and Code Mixing (Hoffman 1991: 112)
In this kind of code switching, tags and certain set phrases in one language are inserted into an utterance otherwise in another, as when a Panjabi/English bilingual says: It's a nice day, hana? (hai nā isn't it).
This kind of code mixing occurs within a clause or sentence boundary, as when a Yoruba/English bilingual says: Won o arrest a single person (won o they did not).
This kind of code switching occurs at a clause or sentence boundary, where each clause or sentence is in one language or the other, as when a Spanish/English bilingual says: Sometimes I'll start a sentence in English y termino en español (and finish it in Spanish). This last may also occur as speakers take turns.
(4) Intra-lexical code mixing
This kind of code mixing which occurs within a word boundary, such as in shoppã (English shop with the Panjabi plural ending) or kuenjoy (English enjoy with the Swahili prefix ku, meaning ‘to’).
(5) Establishing continuity with the previous speaker
This kind of code switching occurs to continue the utterance of the previous speaker, as when one Indonesian speaker speaks in English and then the other speaker tries to respond in English also. Yet, that speaker can also switch again to bahasa Indonesia. For instance:
Speaker 1: I can’t leave him ‘coz I love him so much…
Speaker 2: Correct! You got the point! Kata 'banget' itulah letak permasalahanmu sekarang ini.
(6) Involving a change of pronounciation
This kind of code switching or code mixing occurs at the phonological level, as when Indonesian people say an English word, but modify it to Indonesian phonological structure. For instance, the word ‘strawberry’ is said to be ‘stroberi’ by Indonesian people.
Reasons for Bilinguals to Switch or Mix their Languages (Hoffman, 1991:116)
1. Talking about a particular topic
People sometimes prefer to talk about a particular topic in one language rather than in another. Sometimes, a speaker feels free and more comfortable to express their emotional feelings in a language that is not their everyday language.
2. Quoting somebody else
People sometimes like to quote a famous expression or saying of some well-known figures. In Indonesian, those well-known figures are mostly from some English-speaking countries. Then, because many of the Indonesian people nowadays are good at English, those famous expressions or sayings can be quoted intact in their original language.
3. Being emphatic about something
Usually, when someone who is talking using a language that is not his native tongue suddenly wants to be emphatic about something, he/she, either intentionally or unintentionally, will switch from his second language to his first language. Or, on the other hand, there are some cases where people feel more convenient to be emphatic in their second language rather than in their first language.
4. Interjection (Inserting sentence fillers or sentence connectors)
Language switching and language mixing among bilingual or multilingual people can sometimes mark an interjection or sentence connector. It may happen unintentionally or intentionally.
5. Repetition used for clarification
When a bilingual wants to clarify his/her speech so that it will be understood more by the listener, he/she can sometimes use both of the languages that he masters saying the same utterance (the utterance is said repeatedly).
6. Intention of clarifying the speech content for interlocutor
When bilingual talks to another bilingual, there will be lots of code switching and code mixing occur. It means to make the content of his/her speech runs smoothly and can be understood by the hearer.
7. Expressing group identity
Code switching and code mixing can also be used to express group identity. As it has been mentioned previously, the way of communication of academic people in their disciplinary groupings, are obviously different from other groups. In other words, the way of communication of one community is different from the people who are out of the community (Barnett, 1994: 7).
Additional Reasons Given by Saville-Troike (1986: 69)
1) To soften or strengthen request or command
For Indonesian people, mixing and switching bahasa Indonesia into English can also soften a request because English is not their native tongue so it does not sound as direct as bahasa Indonesia. However, code mixing and code switching can also strengthen a command since the speaker can feel more powerful than the listener because he/she can use a language that not everybody can.
2) Because of real lexical need
The most common reason for bilinguals to switch or mix their languages is due to the lack of equivalent lexicon in the languages. When an English-Indonesian bilingual has a word that is lacking in English, he will find it easier to say it in bahasa Indonesia. And vice versa, when he/she has a word that is lacking in bahasa Indonesia, he/she will use the English term.
3) To exclude other people when a comment is intended for only a limited audience
Sometimes people want to communicate only to certain people or community they belong to. To avoid the other community or people interfering their communication, they may try to exclude those people by using the language that not everybody knows/masters.
(1) What are the types of code switching and code mixing found in the dialogue of the novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora?
(2) What are the probable reasons why the characters in the novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora mix their bahasa Indonesia with English or switch from bahasa Indonesia into English, or the other way around?
(3) In what context do the characters in the novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora mix their bahasa Indonesia with English or switch their bahasa Indonesia into English?
The research design of this study is descriptive qualitative. This research will show the nature of the situation as it exists at the time of the study as stated by Gay (1987: 189), “descriptive research determines and reports the way the things are”. This research is also qualitative since all the data collection is in the form of words. Since this research is a descriptive qualitative research, the main instrument of this research is the researcher herself as the key-human-instrument. There is only one kind of sources of data in this research, that is, the dialogues spoken by the characters in the novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora.
To collect the data, the researcher first chooses the dialogues in the novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora that contain some forms of language mixing and switching. Some other dialogues that are in English only or bahasa Indonesia only are excluded because they do not contain language mixing and switching. The dialogues that contain language mixing and switching are selected randomly through the last chapter.
After all the data are collected, the next step is data analysis, where the collected data from the dialogues are analyzed using the following steps:
1. Coding the data based on the types, the reasons, and the contexts of code switching and code mixing. The analysis uses the six types of code switching and code mixing and the ten reasons why the characters in the novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora mix or switch their languages.
2. Discussing and summarizing the findings. In this step, the researcher shows how many of the six types of code switching and code mixing are found in the dialogues of the novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora. Also, the researcher shows how many of the ten reasons of language mixing and switching and the context of each category are found in the dialogues of the novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora.
Findings and Discussions
Table 4.1 Types of Code Switching and Code Mixing in the Novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora
Intra-lexical code mixing
Involving a change of spelling
Establishing continuity with the previous speaker
From table 4.2 it is found out that among the six types of code switching and code mixing, there are just five out of them that can be found in the data. Yet, there is a new type occurs in the data (involving the change of spelling). The highest frequency found in the novel is intra-sentential switching. It may because there are some English words that are familiar to the characters so that they can easily use them in their dialogues (within the sentence). And the lowest rank is establishing continuity with the previous speaker. It may occur because the characters think that they do not have to respond to the utterances of the speakers which contain code switching and code mixing in the same way.
Table 4.2 Reasons for Code Switching and Code Mixing in the Novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora
xpressing group identity
Talking about a particular topic
Because of real lexical need
Being emphatic about something
Repetition used for clarification
To soften or strengthen request or command
Intention of clarifying the speech content for interlocutor
Interjection (Inserting sentence fillers or sentence connectors)
Quoting somebody else
The frequency of the occurrence of the reasons of code switching and code mixing in the novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora is started from the highest one to the lowest one. The highest rank among the reasons is to express their group identity. Since the characters in this novel are high school students, they frequently do code switching and code mixing in their dialogues. They use the English words which are usually used by the foreigners to greet their friends, colleagues, or acquaintances. It becomes some kind of pride for them that they can greet their friends in the way the foreigners do. While the lowest rank among the reasons is quoting somebody else. It may occur because the characters are not used to quote the saying of famous people. Since the dialogues are informal ones, it may be more comfortable for the characters to do code switching and code mixing in the usual way. Another reason which is not used at all by the characters is to exclude other people when a comment is intended for only a limited audience. In this case, the characters do the dialogues within their own groups. So, they do not have to exclude other people in their dialogues.
According to the review of the related literatures, there are six types of code switching and code mixing. In this research, there are five out from six types of code switching and code mixing can be found in the novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora. Yet, it is found out that there is a new type of code mixing in the novel, which is involving a change of spelling. Most of the characters in the novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora use intra-sentential switching in their dialogues. It is because there are quite many words in English that are familiar to them and they can use them in their sentences easily. On the other hand, the type that occurs the least is establishing continuity with the previous speaker. Although many of the characters are fluent enough in English, just a few characters want to respond to the speakers who do code switching and code mixing in the same way as they do. Besides, there is no type of code switching and code mixing which involves the change of pronunciation since the media is a written text, so that it is quite hard to know the pronunciation of the statements says by the characters.
From the ten reasons why bilingual people switch or mix their codes, there are nine reasons that can be used to explain the code switching and code mixing in the novel Macarin Anjing by Christian Simamora. Most of the characters switch or mix their codes in order to express their group identity, which means that they belong to a particular speech community, of which the members are able to use both English and bahasa Indonesia in their dialogues. On the other hand, none of the characters switch or mix their codes in order to exclude other people when a comment is intended for only a limited audience. It is mainly because the characters do code switching and code mixing only within their own group (bilingual community). So, they feel that they do not have to exclude other people since they can use bahasa Indonesia outside their group.
In this research it is found out that the context in which the characters do code switching and code mixing is in informal situation. They use code switching and code mixing to express their feelings and emotions, such as anger, empathy, or just usual statements. In this case, they feel more comfortable to do code switching and code mixing because they do not want to be too melancholic if they just use bahasa Indonesia in their dialogues.
Through this study, it is found out that sociolinguistics research can be done in various media. So far, there have been a lot of sociolinguistic studies done on spoken discourses. On the other hand, this research is done to analyze written discourse, which is in the form of dialogues in a novel. Those dialogues are the reflection of the way people speak nowadays. So, it will stand up-to-date from time to time. Therefore, this research may suggest the sociolinguistics students not to reject sociolinguistics researches, since they may always stand up-to-date and they can always be done to any up-to-date media.
Since this study has not involved all aspects of code switching and code mixing, and especially about the language in the dialogue of a novel, it is expected that the future researchers can develop this research by including all related aspects of code switching and code mixing, especially about the language of the dialogue in a novel. Moreover, since the references about the language of the dialogue in a novel are not yet available so far, the future researchers are expected to be able to find more related references about the language of the dialogue in a novel. They are also expected to explore and investigate some other phenomena of code switching and code mixing in any speech community in order to reveal some other types and reasons of code switching and code mixing.
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